WATER THINKING 1.0

In collaboration with Savannah Sustainability Department, Georgia, USA.

 

How might Savannah Water Municipal Operations implement design thinking to foster collaboration

with the local Savannah community to encourage water stewardship?

Skills : 

 

 

 

Ethnographic Research

Design Thinking

Strategic Design

Data Analysis

Workshop Design

Process Facilitation

Visual Representation

Location : 

 

Duration : 

Team : 

Savannah, GA, USA

 

Mar 2017 - Jul 2017 (Research + Workshop Design)

Aug 2017 - Dec 2017 (Workshop + Insight Report)

 

Self

Picture Credits (Ganesh Raikar & Pranav Ranawat)

WATER THINKING  1.0

WATER STEWARDSHIP

CHALLENGE
How might Savannah Water Municipal Operations implement design thinking to foster collaboration with the local Savannah community
to encourage water stewardship?
My Learning Experience
Public-Private-Partnership (P3) Policy Development.
Research Lead and Process Facilitator for Inclusivity.
Workshop Design and Development.
MY ROLE
This was the Design Management Final Project during Spring 2017, 
it was an individual project for 10 weeks. The project began by gathering secondary research data from the local government bodies involved in relation to the existing water stress caused by the tourism industry in Savannah, GA. Then identifying the relevant stakeholders, preparing interview questions as per the varied field of stakeholders involved and lastly, conducting Primary research through In-person Interviews. Finally, the outcome of the project was a Collaboration Workshop where all the different stakeholders could share their perspectives and overcome the communication gap to address the water issues more closely by the Stakeholders Inclusive Collaborative (S.I.C) Workshop.
OVERVIEW
For this project, I collaborated with Savannah Water Municipal Operations, a department within the City of Savannah, a full-service government who serve a community of 140,000 citizens in a metropolitan area with a population of 350,000. Savannah is considered one of the most beautiful cities in the world, with the largest National Historic Landmark District in America, ample cultural and entertainment options, and close proximity to the beach.
I lived in Savannah for two and a half years and frequently noticed how the taste and smell of drinking water were different every time I drank. For my MA Final Project, I decided to dig into this issue and discover what was the cause of this untasteful quality. I conducted secondary research, by checking through government data for the source of water, water purification standards and is it safe to drink this water.
 
Interesting facts revealed, Savannah had depleted its Ground Water resources and was sourcing from Fresh Water resources. Hence, the taste of the water was different every time but it was completely safe to consume. During this time, I had a few preliminary quick interview meetings with several employees from Savannah Water Municipal Operations to know more about the depleting ground and freshwater resources. They discussed all their approaches to serve this issue, few of them were - they began by reaching out directly to the citizens at events or public gatherings at Forsyth Park, organizing various sustainability bathroom faucet exchange schemes, and even by regulating water taxes. But none of them were showing effective results. 
The project is graphically presented using 6-steps D.E.S.I.G.N Model process.
 

DISCOVER

To begin with the secondary research I started with the most important question - What is the primary source of water in Savannah.?
The Floridian Aquifer is the primary source of water in Savannah. It is one of the most productive groundwater resources in the world. This groundwater resource is shared by four states - Alabama, Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina. Savannah is one of the biggest cities in Georgia state to utilize this water resource. It is also utilized by a few cities in Alabama, most of the cities in South Carolina and almost all the cities in Florida.
 
In 2008, the state of Georgia faced a state drought where the conditions got so bad that Georgia had to buy water from the neighboring states of Alabama, South Carolina, and Florida. In August 2010, Georgia formulated a "Water Stewardship Act" to encourage water conservation and enhance the State's water supply after repaying the debt. After implementing the Water Stewardship Act, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency measured the impact over time to check it's efficiency. The first two years, displayed a significant reduction in water usage as the state government started the exchange program, unfortunately, it did not sustain until 2015.
During this research, I learned new terms like - Water Footprint, Water Stewardship, Water Steward and many more. I also researched about global water stress trends to understand closely and in-depth about the water stress conditions in Savannah. Based on the secondary research, I asked questions like -
How might we prevent and prepare for any future droughts in Savannah or the state of Georgia?
How might the Savannah Water Municipal Operations enhance the State's water supply?
How might we encourage citizens to voluntarily practice water conservation?
How might the Savannah Water Municipal Operations introduce new programs and policies to encourage Water Stewardship?
How might we share best practices with the citizens to reduce their water footprint?
 

EXAMINE

Savannah is one of the biggest city in Georgia state utilizing the Floridan Aquifer as a primary source of groundwater. This made me more curious to learn about the Savannah drought issue. Hence, I continued conducting secondary research where I learned that Floridan Aquifer is depleting over the years and also due to extensive salt intrusion from the North Atlantic ocean, the groundwater is not fit for consumption. "Desalinization process takes a lot more energy for treatment than to draw water from a different source." 
Looking at the current scenario, Savannah was drawing more water from the Savannah River which utilizes less energy compared to the desalinization process of the groundwater. Savannah river water was easy to clean to make it adequate for consumption. In April 2013, the U.S. Army Corps. of Engineers reported that Savannah river is also gradually depleting due to increasing consumption over the years. "They also predicted that this consumption rate might lead to another drought in Savannah by 2023."
This data also helped me in narrowing down my context within Savannah. I began to research the current scenario of consumption from the Savannah river water, I began by asking a few questions like -
How much quantity of water was available?
What was the energy required to clean this water for consumption?
How was the water consumption distributed within the city?
Which industries were using this water for their daily business?
I looked into more data to answer the questions that I raised above. I found various trends in Savannah, reported every year by the Savannah 2017 Economic Trends in collaboration with the City of Savannah government. Surprisingly, few trends were directly related to water consumption from the Savannah River. "One of the biggest trends was the continuous increase in the tourism industry in Savannah." 
Tourism brought an enormous amount of revenue, "$2.6B in visitor spending by 13.7M visitors alone in 2015." Savannah Economic Trends also predicted that hotel development has been and will continue to increase in 2017. This will increase Savannah's employment rate by 3.5% or create new 6,300 jobs. However, on the contrary, "hotel and urban development will cause a huge impact on existing water stress issue in Savannah."
This intrigued me to deviate my focus of research slightly from "encouraging citizens to voluntarily practice water conservation" to "encouraging the tourism industry to participate and implement best practices to reduce their water footprint." "This led me to shortlist the stakeholders that were directly or indirectly involved, linked, or even closely associated in any manner with the tourism industry." 
"I also discussed the above research with the Savannah Water Municipal Operations, they also agreed that focusing on the tourism industry was a good starting point rather than aiming for all the citizens." The city government was always updated with all the research findings.
I looked into more data to answer the questions that I raised above. I found various trends in Savannah, reported every year by the Savannah 2017 Economic Trends in collaboration with the City of Savannah government. Surprisingly, few trends were directly related to water consumption from the Savannah River. "One of the biggest trends was the continuous increase in the tourism industry in Savannah." 
Tourism brought an enormous amount of revenue, "$2.6B in visitor spending by 13.7M visitors alone in 2015." Savannah Economic Trends also predicted that hotel development has been and will continue to increase in 2017. This will increase Savannah's employment rate by 3.5% or create new 6,300 jobs. However, on the contrary, "hotel and urban development will cause a huge impact on existing water stress issue in Savannah."
This intrigued me to deviate my focus of research slightly from "encouraging citizens to voluntarily practice water conservation" to "encouraging the tourism industry to participate and implement best practices to reduce their water footprint." "This led me to shortlist the stakeholders that were directly or indirectly involved, linked, or even closely associated in any manner with the tourism industry." 
"I also discussed the above research with the Savannah Water Municipal Operations, they also agreed that focusing on the tourism industry was a good starting point rather than aiming for all the citizens." The city government was always updated with all the research findings.

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Before drafting the final "How might we" question, I synthesized the secondary research. Here are the top three concerns that were raised during this preliminary quick interviews -
Why did the government's efforts did not succeed after the second year? "There were collaboration gaps within the government departments to constantly run different water conservation programs to create awareness." (Quote from a government official)
What were the concerns about drinking water quality? "The water tasted and smelled different every time we drank." (Quote from a resident)
Why was it difficult to implement water stewardship? "Citizens and local businesses lacked basic awareness about the term water stewardship." (Quote from a local as well as a local business owner)
Based on these quotes, I listed a few opportunities - 
"There was a critical need for collaboration."
"There was an opportunity to create shared value for all stakeholders."
"There was an opportunity to create awareness and encourage water stewardship."
As I looked through my brainstorming session, I could draft a few close to final "How might we" question -
How might Savannah Water Municipal Operations encourage the importance of water stewardship to all the stakeholders?
How might Savannah Water Municipal Operations implement Design Thinking to create shared value for all the stakeholders?
How might Savannah Water Municipal Operations collaborate with different government departments, local businesses, and citizens? 

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I designed "The Map of Research Space" for identifying secondary and primary research resources for four large topics based on a rough draft of "How might we" questions.
This map was used by SCAD Design Management professors
as an example to demonstrate the standard of accuracy and depth
expected from prospective MA, Final Project students.
 

SOLIDIFY

Backed with all the research, I developed the final "How might we" question.

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Hence answering the big question "Who is the local Savannah community?"
For this project, I narrowed the focus on the tourism industry and its impact on water stress. 
 
The tourism industry comprised of local businesses, local citizens, and large local manufacturers who directly or indirectly had an impact on the existing water stress of the Savannah River. I began by categorizing the stakeholders into two large groups - The Core and Micro-to-Macro. Micro-to-Macro stakeholders had three sub-groups and I named them "Lenses" - Micro Lens, Intermediate Lens, and Macro Lens.

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Stakeholders Map is a visual representation of all the stakeholders from Core to Macro.
 
The core is at the center represented by the green circle. The first ring surrounding the core is the Micro Lens stakeholders represented in orange, followed by the Intermediate Lens represented by a blue ring, and finally, the Macro Lens stakeholders are represented by a purple ring. Next few slides will describe each ring in detail. 

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The Core included Savannah Water Municipal Operations and City of Savannah government officials who were directly associated with the water department as well as the tourism industry. These stakeholders directly or indirectly influenced the tourism industry by policymaking, law regulations or any long term decision making. 

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Micro Lens included the stakeholders who were running local businesses like - hotels, restaurants, retail, and bars. They had a permanent base located in Savannah and hence, they had a direct impact on existing water stress on the Savannah River. These stakeholders had one business or some had more (franchise or branches) and hence, we (City of Savannah government and myself) agreed to focus on them to implement new water stewardship approaches. 

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Intermediate Lens included the local citizens, SCAD family (students, professors, and staff), US Army base, and tourists. Some of them had a permanent base located in Savannah and some were temporary (tourists and SCAD family) hence, they had a direct and indirect impact on existing water stress on the Savannah River. The stakeholder consumption was huge compared to local businesses and had a larger impact. Hence to test new water stewardship approaches was difficult because of a large number. 

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Macro Lens were supporting industries for running a smooth tourism business. This included manufacturing, healthcare, fishing, construction, and agriculture industries. These stakeholders had permanent setups in and around Savannah, causing a direct and indirect impact on existing water stress on the Savannah River. The stakeholder consumption was the largest compared to both the other stakeholders and had the biggest impact. So to test the new water stewardship approaches could only be followed once tested with Micro and Intermediate Lens stakeholders. 

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Sustainability SWOT also called sSWOT is an analysis tool, designed by the World Resource Institute, to initiate collaboration on environmental challenges, business risks, and help drive action in relevant opportunities areas. Within the realms of the project, sSWOT helped me plan and prioritize the environmental challenges and big trends (existing and future, both) around Water Stewardship. This was followed by turning threats into possible opportunities and gaining a strong actionable direction while also knowing the weaknesses that could resist the action of implementation. The identified actionable direction is synthesized and prioritized based on all the above and an implementation plan to act is created.
The sSWOT helped the Micro Lens stakeholders plan and gain a competitive advantage over their competition. The Core stakeholders could collaborate and help drive action by creating an executable plan of actions with the Micro Lens stakeholders, as they have a permanent base located in Savannah and hence, they had a direct impact on existing water stress on the Savannah River. These stakeholders had one business or some had more (franchise or branches) and hence, we (City of Savannah government and myself) agreed to focus on them to implement new water stewardship approaches. 

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Creating a Shared Value for both the Core and Micro Lens stakeholders could help the businesses move beyond corporate social responsibility and gain a competitive advantage by including social and environmental considerations in their strategies.
Empathy, Trust, Inclusivity, and Respect are the four core pillars designed to create shared value to achieve the most powerful path to social progress in the competitive landscape for all the stakeholders. The stakeholders from the Core to Macro Lens should build innate trust within themselves, cultivating empathy, being more inclusive, and gaining mutual respect to achieve desired actions for the opportunity areas.

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IMAGINE

Five frameworks for collaboration were created between the Savannah Municipal Operations and Local Businesses for the Imagine phase of the project. Guiding the actionable direction and driving change through five frameworks of collaboration are -
1. Awareness Framework - Creating awareness within the Local Businesses by engaging Academia and respective three main enablers - Millenials, Institutes, and Local events. The actionable direction is by involving Millenials and students from different institutes to host different awareness methods/booths and encouraging the Local Businesses to participate in such awareness events in Savannah. These events could be funded by the Savannah Water Municipal Operations
2. Economy Framework - Local businesses thrive on the "Tourism industry" and it plays a very crucial role in driving the economy in Savannah. Three main enablers are - Revenue, Profits, and Partnerships. The actionable direction is by encouraging more tourism by The Savannah Water Municipal Operations in Savannah that would generate more income/revenue and hence more profits for local businesses. These could lead to a long-term partnership between Savannah Water Municipal Operations and the Local Businesses to utilize the generated tax revenue for implementing more "Green Sustainable Initiatives".
3. Sustainable Framework - The prime focus of this framework is Technology and its respective enablers are - Awareness, Incentives, and Funding. The actionable direction is by involving Savannah Water Municipal Operations to spread awareness about best practices for Water Usage and offering Incentives and Funding plans to the Local Businesses for implementing/installing new appliances (technology) for becoming more efficient and reducing their Water Footprint.
4. Resource Framework - Funding is the main component with its respective enablers - Awareness, Partnership, and Revenue. The Funding required to implement new technology and best practices for Water Usage could be provided by the Savannah Water Municipal Operations to the Local Businesses for being more efficient and developing a long term partnership which in turn also helps in generating more tax revenue.
5. Resilience Framework - Aims at creating a long term Partnership by using three enablers - Awareness, Future, and Sustainability.
 
Savannah Water Municipal Operations could spread "Green Sustainable Initiatives" awareness by involving Academia in various local events,
Generating more avenues for sustainability and best practices for Water Usage to reduce the Water Footprint,
Supporting the tourism industry,
Providing incentives and funding plans to incorporate new technology and ultimately leading to creating a long term partnership.
The long term partnership between Savannah Water Municipal Operations and Local Businesses could help us prepare and be resilient for the predicted Savannah Drought of 2023.
Affinity Insights are generated from the Secondary and Primary data collected during the contextual research. These insights would create possible opportunity areas for actionable direction. The synthesis and affinity mapping of the data led to 8 insights -
 
1. M.A.P - Millennial Awareness Partnership - There is an opportunity for Savannah Water Municipal Operations to involve Millennials to host different awareness methods/booths and encouraging the Local Businesses to participate in such awareness events in Savannah.
 
2. T.E.D - Tourism Economic Driver - There is an opportunity for Savannah Water Municipal Operations to implement "Green Sustainable Initiatives" in collaboration with the Local Businesses to generate more income/revenue and hence, in turn, more profits as the Local Businesses thrive on the "Tourism industry" and it plays a very crucial role in driving the economy in Savannah.
3. E.A.P - Evaluate and Propose - There is an opportunity for Savannah Water Municipal Operations to evaluate the current practices of the Local Businesses and then propose new best practices as prepared under the "Green Sustainable Initiatives" to get more tourism business and rip more income and generate more revenue for the Savannah Water Municipal Operations to help reduce Water Footprint.
4. S.C.P - Sustaining by Collaborative Partnerships - There is an opportunity for Savannah Water Municipal Operations to create a long term sustainable partnership with the Local Businesses by implementing the first three insights and be resilient for any unprecedented calamities.
5. I.D.I - Incentivize Don't Inflict - There is an opportunity for Savannah Water Municipal Operations to offer incentives and various funding plans to the Local Businesses for successful implementation of "Green Sustainable Initiatives" and best practices by installing new technology. Hence, not inflict strict laws and policies to be more sustainable and efficient.
6. R.E.P - Reduction Equals Profit - There is an opportunity for Savannah Water Municipal Operations to create awareness among the Local Businesses about the benefits in terms of profits that they can gain by implementing "Green sustainable Initiatives" and best practices by reducing their Water Footprint.
7. I.I.F - Imperative Impact Fee - There is an opportunity for Savannah Water Municipal Operations to impose an imperative impact fee to those businesses whose current practices are not sustainable and do not contribute towards reducing the Water Footprint. This would also encourage and create awareness among tourists to engage with businesses that offer Green and sustainable approaches in their daily practice
8. R.P.F - Resilient Partnerships for Future - There is an opportunity for Savannah Water Municipal Operations to create a long term sustainable partnership for the future and be prepared for the predicted Savannah Drought of 2023.
These insights are also aligned with different frameworks presented above to create a more concrete actionable direction for the Future.

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Solution Pyramid helps in prioritizing and preparing an actionable approach for implementation of the Insights and Frameworks presented above. The Solution Pyramid is a bottom-up approach divided into three parts - Awareness, Collaboration, and Partnerships. There is a possible opportunity to prepare and implement these three parts into short-term, mid-term, and long-term time frames and partnerships. This possible direction could be measured on an impact vs time graph.

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Creating partnerships based on the Water Stress impact in Savannah and also the revenue generated by various stakeholders. 
 
1. Short-Term Partnership could be with the Micro Lens Stakeholders i.e. Local Businesses comprising 43% hotels, 33% restaurants, 14% retail stores, and 10% bars in the Historic District of Savannah catering to the tourism industry. Hence, this partnership needs to be implemented first within 1 to 2 years.
2. Mid-Term Partnership could be with the Intermediate Lens Stakeholders comprising 25.7% tourists, 24.3% SCAD family, 25.2% local citizens, and 24.8% Army base that uses the water services provided by the Savannah Water Municipal Operations. This partnership could be implemented within 3 to 5 years after gaining successful experience and knowledge from the Short-Term Partnership in the first 2 years.
3. Long-Term Partnership could be with the Macro Lens Stakeholders (there is no exact data found for the water usage for these stakeholders). This partnership could be implemented from the 5th year onwards and beyond after gaining successful experience and knowledge from the Mid-Term Partnership in the first 4 years
Based on the Insights, Frameworks, Solution Pyramid, and the Partnership plan underneath is a predicted Impact v/s Time graph for 5 years, displaying the effect of creating a partnership with various stakeholders involved from the Core to Marco Lens.
The Impact is measured in "% of Reduction in Water Usage" and Time in "Number of Years".
For the 1st year, the Core Stakeholder (Savannah Water Municipal Operations) could collaborate with the Micro Lens Stakeholders (Local Businesses in Savannah) to implement new methods and approaches to help them reduce their existing water footprint. This collaboration might lead to a 10% more impact on the existing water stress of these stakeholders.
For the 2nd year, the Core Stakeholder (Savannah Water Municipal Operations) could start building a long-term sustainable partnership with the Micro Lens Stakeholders (Local Businesses in Savannah) to create more impact to almost 30% of the existing water stress of these stakeholders.
For the 3rd year, the Core Stakeholder (Savannah Water Municipal Operations) could collaborate with the Intermediate Lens Stakeholders (Local Savannah population) to create awareness and showing them avenues that will help them in reducing their existing water footprint. During, this approach the impact might fall down to 20% from 30% because of the increase in population.
For the 4th year, the Core Stakeholder (Savannah Water Municipal Operations) could start building a long-term sustainable partnership with the Intermediate Lens Stakeholders (Local Savannah population) to constantly maintain the momentum of the impact while catering to the water needs and demands of such a large population.
For the 5th year, the Core Stakeholder (Savannah Water Municipal Operations) could collaborate and start building a long-term partnership with the Macro Lens Stakeholders (Supporting Industries and Factories in Savannah) to implement new methods and approaches to help them reduce their existing water footprint. This collaboration might lead to a 40% more impact on the existing water stress of these stakeholders.
 
The Core Stakeholders will constantly evolve and learn from their past experiences and successful implementation plan with various stakeholders to reduce their Water Footprint to address their water needs and demands of other stakeholders as they move ahead each year.

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If the Partnerships build as per the 5 years predicted plan of action, the Savannah Water Municipal Operations would take the backstage for running the show because over the years partnership will lead to a sustainably planned partnership that would thrive and run itself.
Micro, Intermediate, and Macro Lens Stakeholders would be the forefront of the show.

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This could be the possible Impact v/s Time graph once the Core Stakeholder (Savannah Water Municipal Operations) has taken the backseat.

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Reflecting back on the questions that we set up in the beginning, answering a few of them -
How Might We create a Framework.?
How Might We foster Collaboration between all the Stakeholders.? and
How Might We encourage Water Stewardship to the Local Community.?
Developing the concept for the Stakeholders Inclusive Process for actionable direction could be a "DROP OF WATER".
A drop of Water is chosen because it creates an endless ripple in the water. Similarly, the Core Stakeholders could start collaborating and building partnerships with the Micro Lens Stakeholders in the 1st year and like a ripple in the water, they could grow each year by learning from their past experience and knowledge to meet the water needs and demands of various stakeholders in different lenses while helping them reducing their Water Footprint.
Based on the Insights, Frameworks, Solution Pyramid, Partnership plan, and the Impact v/s Time graphs underneath is a Ripple Effect Framework (R.E.F), Model.
The R.E.F Model is a visual presentation of the partnerships between the Core Stakeholder (Savannah Water Municipal Operations) and Micro, Intermediate, and Macro Lens Stakeholders.

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Stakeholders Tool-Kit is a physical representation of the R.E.F Model.
There are different sizes of acrylic disks; where the Core Stakeholder is the GREEN center pin over which the multiple stakeholders based on the priority are identified and noted. Acrylic disks are chosen because they offer ease of erasing that helps in keeping track of the active stakeholder engagement involved in the process.

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For the realms of the project, a Collaboration Session is designed to bridge the gap between the Core Stakeholder (Savannah Water Municipal Operations) and the Micro Stakeholders (Local Businesses) as per the proposed and predicted actionable plan and Impact v/s Time graph to prepare for the predicted Savannah Draught of 2023.
The Opportunity Gap - There is a lack of awareness about Water Stewardship and proposed best practices for reducing the Water Footprint while catering to the tourism industry.
Proposing a "STAKEHOLDERS INCLUSIVE COLLABORATION WORKSHOP" based on Shared Values, Shared Vision, sharing with them the merits of this session and how it would benefit them by being more "Green and Sustainable" while reducing their existing Water Footprint.
S.I.C (Stakeholders Inclusive Collaborative) Workshop is a 100-minute, 6 exercises with two set of Stakeholders (Core and Micro for this round) was proposed at the Marshall House, Savannah.

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GO

The Design Management Project ends at delivering the actionable direction and ideas to address the opportunity areas.
 
However, I was grateful to have an opportunity to execute and facilitate the S.I.C (Stakeholders Inclusive Collaborative) Workshop session,
it was not at all easy to gather all the Core and Micro Lens Stakeholders at the same time in one place (The Marshall House, Savannah).
After several attempts, finally, I got an opportunity on August 9th, 2017.

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NURTURE

The Nurture phase of the project is designed and developed in the "WATER THINKING 2.0" project.
After successful facilitation of the Stakeholders Inclusive Collaborative (S.I.C) Workshop, a detailed Insight Report was created.
This workshop could also be implemented for Energy Efficiency and catering to various Natural Calamities.

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This project was successfully completed and a huge shout out goes to the people who have been an immense support to me throughout my journey of this project. First of all to my Parents for blessing me with the educational opportunity, respected Professors for guiding me and educating me at every step of the learning experience, my notorious brother and lastly my friends who were always there for motivating me
to fight and thrive to accomplish the project.
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